Cognizant Technology Solutions
|Traded as||NASDAQ: CTSH
S&P 500 Component
|Industry||IT services, IT consulting|
|Predecessor(s)||Dun & Bradstreet|
|Headquarters||Teaneck, New Jersey, United States|
|Key people||John E. Klein (Chairman)
Francisco D'Souza (CEO)
|Services||IT, business consulting and outsourcing services|
|Revenue||US$ 6.12 billion (2011)|
|Operating income||US$ 1.13 billion (2011)|
|Profit||US$ 883 million (2011)|
|Total assets||US$ 5.50 billion (2011)|
|Total equity||US$ 3.95 billion (2011)|
Cognizant Technology Solutions Corp. is an American multinational provider of custom information technology, consulting and business process outsourcing (BPO) services. It is headquartered in Teaneck, Bergen County, New Jersey, USA. Cognizant is included in the NASDAQ-100 and the S&P 500 indices.
Originally founded as an in-house technology unit of Dun & Bradstreet in 1994, Cognizant started serving external clients in 1996. Cognizant's IPO was launched in 1998, after a series of corporate splits and restructures of its parent companies. During the dot com bust, it grew by accepting the application maintenance work that the bigger players were unwilling to perform. Gradually, it ventured into application development, complex systems integration and consulting work.
Cognizant saw a period of fast growth during the 2000s, becoming a Fortune 500 company in 2011. In 2011, the Fortune magazine named it as the world's third most admired IT services company after Accenture and IBM.
The company that is now called Cognizant has its roots in The Dun & Bradstreet Corporation, an India-based joint venture between Dun & Bradstreet (76%) and Satyam Computers (24%). Srini Raju was the CEO of this company established in 1994. Kumar Mahadeva played a major role in convincing D&B to invest $2 million in the joint venture. DBSS was set up as an in-house technology unit, and focused on implementing large-scale IT projects for the D&B businesses. In 1996, the company started pursuing the Y2K-related projects, and won two large accounts outside of D&B: Northwest Airlines and Aetna. It put in one of the lowest bids for a Y2K-compliance project for Pacific Exchange, and delivered the work a month before the May 1997 deadline.
In 1996, Dun & Bradstreet (D&B) spun off several of its subsidiaries including Erisco, IMS International, Nielsen Media Research, Pilot Software, Strategic Technologies and DBSS, to form a new company called Cognizant Corporation. Three months later, in 1997, DBSS was renamed to Cognizant Technology Solutions. In July 1997, D&B bought Satyam's 24% stake in DBSS for $3.4 million. The headquarters were moved back to the United States, and in March 1998, Kumar Mahadeva was named the CEO. Operating as a division of the Cognizant Corporation, the company mainly focused on Y2K-related projects and web development at this stage.
In 1998, the parent company Cognizant Corporation was split into two companies: IMS Health and Nielsen Media Research. After this restructuring, Cognizant Technology Solutions became a public subsidiary of IMS Health. In June 1998, IMS Health partially spun off the company, conducting an initial public offering of the Cognizant stock. The company raised $34 million, less than what the IMS Health underwriters had hoped for. The money was earmarked for debt payments and upgradation of the company's Indian offices.
Kumar Mahadeva decided to reduce the company's dependence on Y2K projects: by Q1 1999, 26% of company's revenues came from Y2K projects, compared to 49% in early 1998. Believing that the $16.6 billion ERP software was saturated, Mahadeva decided to stay away from the large-scale ERP implementation projects. Instead, he focused on applications management, which accounted for 37% of Cognizant's revenue in Q1 1999. Cognizant's revenues in 2002 were $229 million, and the company had zero debt with $100 million in the bank. During the dotcom bust, the company grew by taking on the maintenance projects that the bigger companies did not want.
In 2003, IMS Health sold its entire 56% stake in Cognizant, which instituted a poison pill provision to prevent hostile takeover attempts. Kumar Mahadeva resigned as the CEO in 2003, and was replaced by Lakshmi Narayanan. Gradually, the Company's service portfolio has expanded to IT services, BPO and business consulting. Lakshmi Narayanan was succeeded by the Kenya-born Francisco D'Souza in 2006. Cognizant saw a period of fast growth during the 2000s, appearing in the Fortune magazine's "100 Fastest-Growing Companies" list for nine consecutive years from 2003 to 2011. Due to strong competition from Accenture and IBM, Cognizant had to offer lower prices as a differentiator in the early 2000s. To overcome this problem, in the late 2000s, it decided to venture into higher-end technology consulting like these companies.
|Zaffera||USA||September 2011||SAP Consulting|||
|CoreLogic||India||July 2011||Mortgage processing|||
|Galileo Performance||France||June 2010||Consulting related to the measurement, management and continuous optimization of IT system performance|||
|PIPC Group||UK||May 2010||Program & Project Management Consulting|||
|UBS India Service Center||India||October 2009||Business process outsourcing, industry research|||
|Pepperweed Advisors||US||8 September 2009||Business Consulting, Program Management|||
|Active Intelligence||Canada||February 2009||Consulting, implementation and support services for Oracle Retail Merchandising, Planning and Optimization suite|||
|Strategic Vision Consulting||US||June 2008||Business Consulting for media and entertainment companies|||
|marketRx||US||16 November 2007||Life Sciences Analytics, healthcare KPO|||
|AimNet||US||September 2006||IT infrastructure services|||
|Fathom Consulting||Canada||April 2005||Telecom & Automotive IT Services|||
|Ygyan Consulting||India||February 2004||SAP consulting|||
|Infopulse||Netherlands||December 2003||IT services|||
|Aces International||US||April 2003||Siebel CRM consulting|||
|American Express Travel-related Services account from Silverline Technologies||US||Sep 2002||Financial services|||
|UnitedHealthcare Ireland Limited||Ireland||June 2002||Healthcare services (a subsidiary of the UnitedHealth Group)|||
Cognizant provides information technology, consulting and BPO services. These include business & technology consulting, systems integration, application development & maintenance, IT infrastructure services, analytics, business intelligence, data warehousing, CRM, supply chain management, engineering & manufacturing Solutions, ERP, R&D outsourcing, and testing solutions.
In 2011, the company's revenue from IT services was split roughly evenly between application development and application maintenance. Its business process outsourcing unit leans towards "higher-end" services i.e. work that involves domain knowledge and skills, such as legal services or healthcare claims processing rather than simple voice-based support services.
In the 2012 earnings announcements, the CEO Frank D'Souza categorized the company's service offerings in three groups: Horizon 1 (application development and maintenance), Horizon 2 (BPO, IT Infrastructure Services & business consulting) and Horizon 3 ("SMAC" - Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud). In May 2012, the Horizon 1 services accounted for around 75% of the company's revenues, and Horizon 2 services about 15%.
 Business model
Like many other IT services firms, Cognizant follows a global delivery model based on offshore software R&D and offshore outsourcing. The company has a number of offshore development centers outside the United States, mainly in India.
In its early years, Cognizant gained business from a number of American and European companies with the help of the D&B brand. The company's senior executives envisaged it as a firm which provided high-end customer services on-par with the six contemporary major system integrators (Accenture, BearingPoint, Capgemini, E&Y, Deloitte and IBM), but at lower prices.
In order to deal with the fierce competition from the Indian IT service companies and the major American system integrators, Cognizant decided to focus more on developing deeper relationships with existing customers than on acquiring new customers. The company resorted to what it calls a "two-in-a-box" engagement model: its US and Europe-based leaders (often from consulting backgrounds) manage the customer relationships, while the India-based managers oversee offshore delivery services. The managers who were geographically closest to the customers were given more power and responsibility. However, the time zone differences forced the customer-facing managers to work late in nights in order to resolve issues with the India-based teams. In order to solve this problem, the company instituted another scheme, in which the responsibility was divided equally between the onsite and the offshore managers. In the late 2000s, the company started experimenting with what it calls the "three-in-a-box" model, which adds a business consulting layer to its "two-in-a-box" model (as opposed to a separate concern).
 Offshoring and hiring in the U.S.
Cognizant is among the Top 10 companies receiving H-1B visas to bring highly skilled immigrant workers to the United States. The company has been steadily increasing its U.S. work force. In January 2011, the company announced plans to expand its U.S. delivery centers including a new 1,000-person facility in Phoenix, Arizona. In February 2011, Cognizant said it had 60 full time recruiters actively hiring in the U.S.
In 2009, an investigation by the US Department of Labor (DoL) found Cognizant in violation of the H-1B provisions of the Immigration and Nationality Administrative Act. DoL found that 67 of its workers hired under the H-1B program were underpaid. According to Cognizant, this was due to unintentional administrative errors; the DoL investigation revealed that Cognizant had achieved 99.7% compliance in its management of H-1B visa-related issues. The company paid $509,607 in back wages to the 67 employees. No fines or visa restrictions were imposed since DoL did not discover any willful violations. Joseph Petrecca, the director of the Wage and Hour Division's Northern New Jersey District Office praised the company for taking immediate steps to correct the violations, and stated, "This level of cooperation sets a standard for others in the industry."
In addition to its headquarters and delivery center in Teaneck, N.J., Cognizant has five additional delivery centers in the United States of America: Bentonville, Arkansas; Bridgewater, New Jersey; Chicago, Illinois; Holliston, Massachusetts; and Phoenix, Arizona. The company has more than 140,000 employees globally, of which over 100,000 are in India across 10 locations with a major chunk in Chennai. The other centres of the company are in Bangalore, Coimbatore, Gurgaon, Hyderabad, Kochi, Kolkata, Mangalore (CoreLogic), Mumbai and Pune. The company also has local, regional and global delivery centers in the UK, Europe, China, The Philippines, Canada, Argentina, and Mexico. The leadership is mainly based in the United States.
 Business Units
Cognizant is organized into several verticals and horizontal units. The vertical units focus on specific industries such as Banking & Financial Services, Healthcare, Manufacturing and Retail. The horizontals focus on specific technologies or process areas such as Analytics, BPO and Testing. The horizontal and the vertical units are often further sub-divided into sub-units. Both horizontal and vertical units have business consultants, which together form the organization-wide Cognizant Business Consulting (CBC) team. The CBC members are also involved in business development and business analysis for the IT services projects. Besides these, there are several other corporate teams such as Finance, Immigration, Legal and Marketing.
According to the 2011 figures, the major portion of the Cognizant revenues comes from the clients in the Financial Services (42.3%) and Healthcare (25.9%) industries. Other substantial revenue sources include clients from Manufacturing, Retail & Logistics (18.6%) and Communications, Information, Media & Entertainment and Technology (13.2%) industries. By geography, the most of the revenue is derived from North America (77.2%) and Europe (19.2%).
 Corporate affairs
 Marketing and branding
Cognizant has used its American incorporation to differentiate itself from the Indian IT services providers. In 2010, some analysts argued that this might have pricing implications for the company's consulting business, since Indian IT services providers are identified with lower prices.
The company's flagship customer conference is Cognizant Community—sometimes simply called Community. It is usually held in the spring in the United States and in the fall in Europe. The summit, which features notable keynote speakers in the world of business, technology, economics and even adventure sports, has been praised as "a model industry event".
Cognizant was listed on NASDAQ in 1998 and moved to the NASDAQ-100 Index in 2004. After the close of trading on 16 November 2006, Cognizant moved from the mid cap S&P 400 to the S&P 500. The company claims to be in excellent financial health, reporting over $2.2 billion in cash and short term investments for the quarter ending 30 June 2011.
 Corporate Social Responsibility
Cognizant's philanthropic efforts are conducted through the voluntary efforts of Cognizant employees and the financial and administrative support of the Cognizant Foundation, which is its corporate social responsibility (CSR) arm. Registered in March 2005 as a "Charitable Company" under the Indian Companies Act, the Cognizant Foundation aims to helps "unprivileged members of society gain access to quality education and healthcare by providing financial and technical support; designing and implementing educational and healthcare improvement programs; and partnering with Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), educational institutions, healthcare institutions, government agencies and corporations".
At the 2011 Maker Faire, the company announced plans to fund a Maker Space at the New York Hall of Science, a Making the Future after-school program and a partnership with Citizen Schools to promote STEM education in the United States.
 Environmental record
Cognizant's sustainability efforts include a Go Green initiative launched in 2008 focused on energy conservation, recycling, and responsible waste management. In October 2011, Newsweek magazine ranked Cognizant 16th among the 500 largest publicly traded companies in America, in its annual Green Rankings.
Cognizant has a diverse and geographically dispersed workforce, operating in different timezones. In 2011, the company director John Klein described its culture as "result-oriented" and "transparent". External consultants have described Cognizant as focusing more on maintaining customer relationships than on aggressive sales. R Chandrasekaran, the company's President and MD, once described its mantra as "Keep the customer happy".
The heads of the vertical units in the company have CEO-like functions and power, when it comes to their units. The senior executives have described the company as a "flat organization" on more than one occasion. However, the CEO Lakshmi Narayanan has clarified that the phrase has a "different connotation" in Cognizant: it means a place where even a new employee cares about the company's success as much as the CEO does, has "great ideas" and believes that the customer cares about "our success as we do about theirs".
The Company has been criticized as "conservative", when it comes to acquisitions. However, the senior leader R Chandrasekaran has stated that the company avoids larger acquisitions in order to preserve its culture and manage the acquisitions easily.
Cognizant invests a substantial amount of money into training. All learning programs are conducted through Cognizant Academy, the in-house training center. The learning programs include e-learning, classroom training programs, external certifications and other role-based training (including executive training). In addition, the associates can undergo management-specific training at partner universities and colleges. The Company's intranet portal is known as "Cognizant 2.0" ("2.0" as in Web 2.0) or "C2", and includes blogs, project management tools and knowledge management applications.
 See also
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- Bengal IT minister tells Cognizant growth story to lure Infy, Wipro
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- CSR World. Last accessed on 6 March 2012.
- Cognizant Foundation extends aid to five NGOs
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- "Cognizant to Unveil 'Making the Future' STEM Education Initiative at World Maker Faire, New York Hall of Science". http://news.cognizant.com/index.php?s=14083&item=20312. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
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- Business data
- Cognizant Technology Solutions Corp at Google Finance
- Cognizant Technology Solutions Corp at Yahoo! Finance
- Cognizant Technology Solutions Corp at Hoover's
- Cognizant Technology Solutions Corp at Reuters
- Cognizant Technology Solutions Corp SEC filings at EDGAR Online
- Cognizant Technology Solutions Corp SEC filings at the Securities and Exchange Commission